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brain diseases

ADHD – Introduction

what-is-adhd-Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , formerly called ADD, or attention deficit disorder,  is a group of behavioral symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. These symptoms differ from person to person.Both children and adults can have ADHD, but the symptoms always begin in childhood. It is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Adults may have trouble managing time, being organized, setting goals, and holding down a job.

Symptoms of ADHD:

It can occur in people of any intellectual ability, although it is more common in people with learning difficulties. People with ADHD may also have additional problems, such as sleep and anxiety disorders.Some of the symptoms are:

  • Short attention span or being easily distracted
  • Restlessness, constant fidgeting or overactivity
  • Being impulsive
  • Difficulty controlling behavior
  • Have difficulty focusing on one thing
  • Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
  • Daydream, become easily confused
  • Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
  • Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
  • Be constantly in motion

adhd map

Causes of ADHD:

The exact cause of is unknown, but the condition has been shown to run in families. If a parent has ADHD, a child has more than a 50% chance of having it. If an older sibling has it, a child has more than a 30% chance.

ALSO READ :   Down Syndrome

Children born with a low birth weight, born premature (before the 37th week of pregnancy), or whose mothers had difficult pregnancies  have a higher risk of having ADHD. The same is true for children with head injuries to the frontal lobe of the brain, the area that controls impulses and emotions.

Studies show that pregnant women who smoke or drink alcohol may have a higher risk of having a child with ADHD. Exposure to lead, PCBs, or pesticides may also have a role.

Cure of ADHD:

There is no cure, but it can be managed with appropriate educational support, advice and support for parents and affected children, alongside medication, if necessary.

Medication is often the first treatment offered to adults, although psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may also help.

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